Different rock dating methods
The lower sandstone layer is disrupted by two faults, so we can infer that the faults are younger than that layer.
But the faults do not appear to continue into the coal seam, and they certainly do not continue into the upper sandstone.
[SE] The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that any geological feature that cuts across, or disrupts another feature must be younger than the feature that is disrupted.
There are a few simple rules for doing this, some of which we’ve already looked at in Chapter 6.The lava flow took place some time after the diorite cooled, was uplifted, and then eroded.(Hammerhead for scale) [SE]Figure 8.6b Rip-up clasts of shale embedded in Gabriola Formation sandstone, Gabriola Island, B. The pieces of shale were eroded as the sandstone was deposited, so the shale is older than the sandstone.Recognizing unconformities is important for understanding time relationships in sedimentary sequences.An example of an unconformity is shown in Figure 8.8.
explains: “Carbon-14 dating, also called radiocarbon dating, [is a] method of age determination that depends upon the decay to nitrogen of radiocarbon (carbon-14).